India's Military Deterrence and Modernisation in an Era of Optimal Warfare PDF Print E-mail

By Lt. Gen Philip Campose
Centre for Land Warfare Studies

This article is written as a sequel to the previous one articulated a week ago on ‘Optimal Warfare.’ In that, the author had argued that, ‘optimal warfare’ – a limited, calibrated, controlled and hybrid mix of various means of war fighting – is likely to be the new warfare concept of the foreseeable future,  which, in India’s case, would be fought under a nuclear overhang. Nonetheless, it needs no reiteration that, even against such a backdrop, military deterrence against potential adversaries would be an essential part of India’s national security strategy. And continuous military modernization, which is an important factor contributing to our military deterrence posture, would be as relevant as the earlier concept of ‘all out wars’, even if implemented selectively and progressively. Also, in keeping with its major power aspirations of the future, India needs to modernise its military without further delay.


Why India did not hard-sell the release of 93,000 Pakistan POWs at the Shimla Summit, 1972 PDF Print E-mail

By Sashanka S Banerjee

Dear Friends,

Indeed very informative and interesting. I wonder what India could have done or should have done. We do blame the Iron Lady for this disastrous move, but perhaps there were other ways to get over it. I listened to the lament by the famed DP Dhar, our ex Ambassador to Moscow and later Min with Indira ji. I was the Asst LO and Interpreter (Chief LO Lt Gen KV Krishna Rao) with a Soviet delegation led by their Defence Minister, including the Soviet Naval and Air Chiefs in Feb 1975. During the banquet at the Ashoka Hotel, thrown by Sardar Swaran Singh, our RM, Mr DP Dhar got up and headed for the lift. I had known him well from Moscow and as he passed me, I wished him and asked if he needed anything. He just nodded and signaled for me to come with him. We went down and then he got to the lawn on the side and started walking. I could make out that he was a little agitated. The banquet was held immediately after a meeting attended by the PM. He kept talking of various issues, particularly Pakistan betrayal and the US connivance to that, and the reason why the Soviets had to be in India to hold our hands at that time, All this not much understood by me, till he suddenly came up with Shimla Agreement,turning towards me, he said, "Can you imagine a greater blunder than this" or words to that effect. I was a mute listener He then said that number of solutions were proposed to Madame, but she got so baffled by Bhutto, that she would not listen to any of us.

I did not much understand at that time, but later and now with the interesting article below, things are a bit more clear. Do read and educate yourselves

Jai Hind

Niranjan Malik


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